Aristotle had pejoratively comments that he would happier to have even one distant cousin than hundreds of brothers and sisters. There are various forms of anarchism. Plato’s concept of sexuality not as a normal human attribute and need but simply as a tool of procreation of future rulers, whereas the toiling masses are left without education and subordinated to be fooled by myths  and illustrations, like the myth of metals. This situation convinced Plato that wealth has a very pernicious effect on the government, but was dismayed at the fact that there was no way to abolish the evil except by abolishing the wealth itself To cure greed among the rulers, there is only one way and that was to deny them any right to call anything their own. The nomenclature, ‘communism of wives’ does not suite the content that is not about arrangement of ‘wives’ among the ‘husbands’ but abolition of the institution of family itself for the Guardians. Plato’s Theory of Communism (Including 2 Forms of Communism)! Plato met with Socrates in 407 BC and became his desciple . Plato was writing in a time and space characterized by slavery in democratic Athens aimed at creation of ‘meritocracy’ based classes and at replacing the democratic governance with an Ideal State ruled by the wise (and only few are endowed with the ability to it) with the help of its armed auxiliaries. Both give priority to the state over individual but we know that Marxian communism is a stateless society; the state of dictatorship of proletariat is only a transitional phase, the state of political emancipation, on the way to communism, the state of human emancipation. Plato’s Communism is a heroic remedy for a desperate evil – the union of Political Power and economic temptation in the one and the same hands. No parent is to know his own child or any child his parent.” All the children are brothers and sisters and all adults are their mothers and fathers. According to his basic assumptions of human nature and the principle of functional specialization, he opines on the moral grounds that everyone must accomplish one’s nature of achieving the requisite end by transcending self-interest. Comparison between two diverse things belonging to different time and space separated by over 2,000 years is not only inconvenient but also irrelevant. their surroundings and conditions. ... Plato’s reasoning for the necessity. Marx. Plato’s argument about breeding of domestic animals refers to the sexual relations between men and women. Plato’s communism is based on the premise that property, family instincts and private interests would distract man’s attention from his obligations to the community. The war torn Athens in Plato’s time was in miserable conditions, the polis (city-state) to which Plato belonged, was divided into two cities, the city of the rich and the city of the poor and the rich could influence the politics through money power and the rich could influence the politics through money power. Plato’s communism is ascetic and aristocratic simultaneously. the philosophers and the warriors from the institutions of family and property. Jm-fN ! The Republic of Plato is also the first treatise upon education, page 4 / 687. of which the writings of Milton and Locke, Rousseau, Jean Paul, ... and the second State is constructed on principles of communism and ruled by philosophers, and the contemplation of the idea of good takes the place of the social and political virtues. There is no privacy and no scope of individual men and women forming any regular or permanent bond. Everything said and done, despite his regressive notions of transcendence of soul, paradoxes in his views on women and restricting this equality only to the ruling class women, given his historical context, Plato’s views on women’s equality are quite radical, as a text can be better understood by placing it into the appropriate context. Family is hurdle for women’s equal education and function as guardians and hence an obstruction in their emancipation. The Critique of Capitalism 6. Books. For doing so, he invents the historical links of totalitarian philosophies from Plato to Marx via Rousseau. He stated that anxiety for one’s children is a form of self-seeking more dangerous than the desire for property, and the training of children at homes as a poor preparation for the whole and sole devotion, which the state has the right to demand. Plato’s theory is based on logical explanation of history and Marx’s on the economic in terms of dominant modes of production. Plato’s theory of communism is based on his belief of corrupting influences of family and property over people holding the public offices that remains a historic fact and continuing norm. Plato’s communism is of two forms, viz., the abolition of private property, which included house, land, money, etc., and the second, the abolition of family, through the abolition of these two, Plato attempted to create a new social order wherein the ruling class surrendered both family and private property and embraced a system of communism. It is to be noted that that in 1945 there was no danger of Plato’s Totalitarian Communism of Plato’s Ideal State ruled by the Philosopher but the danger of the Marxian Communism ruled by the proletariat themselves through their collective organization into a communist party. The emotive and impulsive attachment to the family fetters the absolute devotion to the state and concern for their offspring causes selfish tendencies detrimental to social unity and harmony. A law that follows from that principle (male and female guardians having all occupations in common) and all that has gone before , namely that, of these guardians, no one man and one woman have to set up house together privately: wives have to be held in common by all; so too are the children. Contrary to the Sophist view that one exists and acts in the self-interest, Plato hold that individuals do not exist and act as individuals in the self-interest but exist as parts of collectivity (state) and must subordinate the self-interest to the collective. He has prescribed communistic way of life only for rulers and soldiers and not for other classes or sections of society. stability of his Ideal state. Some authors have stated that Plato's political philosophy was the earliest form of Communism. This would be possible only in a classless society of human emancipation and not in a hierarchical society of class consolidation. He stated that the proper age for begetting children women should be between the age of 20 and 40 and men between 25 and 55 because at this time, the physical and intellectual vigor is more. The children of inferior parents and any children of the rest that are defective are hidden away in some appropriate manner that must be kept secret.” It is to be noted that infanticide of defective children was practiced at Sparta. So, only the guardians were deprived of property. Out of ignorance of genetic and biological laws, he links the restrained and regulated sexuality with one’s moral development that is not product of the biological accident of birth. Both believe in dialectics and dialectical composition of nature and theuniverse but Marx’s reference point is not Platonic but Hegelian dialectics, which he put upside down, as it stands on the head. The philosophers and warriors are the embodiments of the cardinal virtues, wisdom and courage respectively; therefore they must save themselves from getting trapped into lowly faculty – the apatite, the desires and passions are whose mean attributes. After the Bolshevik revolution, The Ten Days That Shook The World (John Reed) and foundation of the Third International – The Communist International (Comintern), most of the capitalist countries had Communist Parties with substantial influence among workers, teachers and students. Further, the guardians, instead of caring for the welfare of their progeny, would thrive for the welfare of all. The controversy is almost as old as civilization. TOS 7. PDF | On Jan 1, 2007, Karsten J. Struhl published Communism | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. He believed that the ruling and military classes have no concern with appetite as they represent reason and courage respectively. Plato recommends a state regulated sexual association of men and women on festive occasions for procreation and not for pleasure. Therefore confining women into domestic chorus was wasting half of the potential social talent. The communism applies only to the ruling classes, a miniscule minority of the population. This situation brings about a question of ‘Did Plato deny his guardians class a normal sex life?’ For this, Plato stated that mating was encouraged between those who can in the best possible manner produce children of the desired quality. To abolish the family, a particular form and level of consciousness in needed. The longings for family and property make the rulers self-seeking, indulgent, greedy and hence corrupt that is a diversion from and impediment to appropriate performance of their duty to rule not in their own but in public interest. His student and first critic criticizes the common ownership of property and abolition of family, for wrong reasons, there is scope here to go into details here. Contents 1. Plato's real name was Aristocles.He excelled in the study of music , mathematics ,poetry and rhetoric . He is pragmatic in concluding that combination of political and economic power in the same hands is a deadly combination, destined to lead to corruption, dissention and hence instability of state. “So far then in regulating the positions of women, we may claim to have come safely through one hazardous proposition that male and female guardians shall have all occupations in common. Plato’s communism aimed at making the Greek city state, a self sufficient properly governed unit. THE COMMUNISM OF PLATO AND MARX by . Abolition of the institutions of marriage and family is essential for the moral development of guardians. Merita ; Introduction. Marx was writing in the time and space characterized by industrial capitalism and wage slavery, aimed at eventually ending the class differences completely leading to a classless society, based on the basic principle of equality of human dignity, which shall make the state unnecessary and shall wither away. Plato’s theory of communism is just opposite to Marxian theory of communism that seeks to eventually establish a classless and hence stateless society, as according to it the state is instrument of the domination in the hands of ruling classes. To destroy family, it is important to destroy selfishness. Plato was, in fact, appalled by the casualness of human mating which according to him would not be tolerated in the breeding of any domestic animal. Plato during his visit to Egypt was impressed by his observation that the clergymen living ascetic life were the revered rulers. They do not create justices/injustices, they only analyze; critique; explain; justify or challenge and provide alternative to the already existing conditions. Socialism isn’t the new new thing. Plato in a way pleads for women’s emancipation from patriarchal family on the ground of their equality with men in all aspects if given the same conditions of bringing up, education and opportunities. They shall live in the state managed barracks and eat in the common mess. Also involvement of rulers into economic activities shall be a deviation from their role and commitment to the justice, i.e. Plato’s theory of communism was certainly a corollary of his conception of justice. Plato’s primary purpose of abolition of private property among the ruling classes is political, i.e. Introducction to Communism 1. All power reserve by the common people. Plato deprived them of all valuables such as gold and silver, and were told that the diviner metal is within them, and therefore there is no need for any ornaments as it might pollute the divine thoughts. His eugenics and family planning proposals are unique but cruel to physically handicapped and illegal children. Plato’ Republic seeks to establish justice, i.e. The Role of Karl Marx 4. Intellectuals react to and reflect upon their own time and space, i.e. If we have to keep our folk at the highest pitch of excellence, there should be as much union of the best of both the sexes and as few of the inferior as possible and the offspring of the better unions should be kept (as guardians). Plato’s communism existed only for the governing class. This is a mistaken analogy. The private ownership of property by ruling classes is to be replaced by their collective ownership of property and collective domination over the producing masses under the direction of philosopher king with the coercive apparatus of the armed auxiliaries. Philosophically, people equipped with specific virtues of wisdom and courage must emancipate themselves from worldly longings and lead exemplary disciplined lives of the principles of communism. What Is the Alternative Farming and Food System That India Needs? Though he allows theoretical equality to men but contradicts himself by his so many remarks in Republic and elsewhere. However, Plato did not bind this principle on the third class, namely, the artisans. But, modern communism espoused a global vision to bring about a world revolution to usher in a communist society. Free speech, the freedom to express ones opinion, is currently highly in vogue. 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