Furthermore, he exploits the power of playful images and poetry to convey his ideas. Music is used to accompany a poem. Story telling is the earliest form of education a child receives from their mothers or other caregivers. Women of the guardian class are indeed to be given the same education as men, but they will become the “companions and colleagues” of their guardian husbands. The warriors must obey the rulers. After addressing the appropriate content of tales, Socrates discusses whether simple or imitative narrative should be used by poets and guardians. Poetry and music is very important for the Guardians. The wisest would be the philosopher-Kings, then workers, then guardians. From this, it seems that education does not make men a certain way, as in the first account. Unable to distinguish between good and bad and, therefore, garner examples of how not to behave from bad tales, children will only use bad examples to justify their own bad behavior (391e). Since God is perfection, then he would not need to take on other forms. Also, because the dialogue is meant to be a defense of philosophy and an apology of Socrates, the education of real philosophers seems more in tune with the theme of the book than the education of "noble-puppy" guardians. This ability to distinguish between good and bad without ever having been directly exposed to the bad is the intended result of the guardians' education. The previous account of education, however, is incomplete because gymnastics and music only teach habits by example (521e-522b). (Remember, he operated his own school at Athens!) Plato was a Greek philosopher who lived from 427 to 347 B.C. The good is a higher reality and is responsible for our capacity to reason, as well as our very "existence and being" (509b). Finally, Socrates arrives at knowledge of what is. By preparing Glaucon with the sun analogy and telling him of the extreme power of the good, Socrates hooks him completely. The guardians that are undergoing this rigorous form of education do not study mathematics for practical purposes. Although music is the most important component in the guardians' education, equilibrium between music and gymnastics is important for the production of moral guardians. Play must have serious intentions; poetry must only imitate what is good, pointing beyond the petty troubles of men to the eternal pursuit of justice and philosophy, and children must not be allowed to play with dialectics before they are able to do so responsibly for fear they will be corrupted and become lawless (538). While the dramatic context of the dialogue makes facets of the Republic difficult to grasp, in the case of education, it also provides the key to locating and understanding Socrates' true vision of education. Moreover, a proper training in this kind makes a man quick to perceive any defect or ugliness in art and nature” (chapter 9, page 90). If certain natures are necessary for education, then all those who are educated are deemed superior in both nature and education. The implication that children can be shaped completely by education fits with the earlier suggestion that guardians are not meant to have a particular moral nature before their education. Socrates says, "Now, the true city is in my opinion the one we just described-a healthy city, as it were. As of now I am still studying other religions. He shows Glaucon what would happen if a prisoner was unchained and allowed to leave the cave and see reality. Outside these ages, intercourse is to … After teaching imagination, Socrates moves onto trust by introducing an education that requires rulers to blindly trust the educative tales they are told. At age twenty, gymnastic education will cease and the best students will be chosen to learn an overview of their studies and how they interrelate with each other and the good. Socrates' style of questioning/answering and refuting arguments also gains meaning after his discussion of the philosopher's return to the cave and dialectics. Thus, Socrates revises the prior education by introducing the study of numbers/calculations, geometry, and cubes. If he tried to look at his new surroundings and the sun directly after leaving the dark cave, he would be blinded and would want to return to the comfort of his familiar past surroundings (515e). Plato View of Education. Socrates' pedagogical approach with the interlocutors corresponds closely with his vision of the education of the philosopher-kings--an overlap which suggests that the allegory of the cave is representative of true Socratic education. Once they see the good itself, they must be compelled, each in his turn, to use it as a pattern for ordering city, private men, and themselves for the rest of their lives. Plato also exploits the power of mimetic poetry by using Socrates and the participants as his mouthpieces. Those who resolutely hold onto the convictions instilled in them by education will be chosen as guardians and those who rebel against the city's ideology will be rejected (413d-414a). Socrates, recognizing that Glaucon is still attached to lavishness, goes along with his request to make the city more luxurious. Furthermore, if he did try to return to the cave and help the other prisoners, they would hate him, calling him corrupt and delusional because their reality is still limited to the shadows in the cave (517a). The omission of wisdom, along with the implication that the guardians should accept blindly whatever they are told and to be wholly molded by the tales, suggest again that guardians are not intended to be wise and philosophical. Socrates says that the sun, like the good, illuminates the true "ideas" behind things. Socrates does not advocate a complicated gymnastic regimen; instead, he says that a good soul produces a good body, and that a healthy intellect ensures a healthy body (403d-e). We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. I thought about my religion, which is Catholicism, and their view on God holding other forms. Plato feels that stories that would make the Guardians become god-fearing should be eliminated because a Guardian should not fear God. Plato feels that certain aspects of theology would have to be censored such as heaven being responsible for everything, both good and evil. Like excessive displays of grief, excessive displays of happiness threaten the stoic attitude that is desirable in guardians. Plato’s feelings on primary education would make a just Guardian and would truly bring out his divine nature. Socrates says. Tales must also show bravery in the face of danger (390d. He follows the path of the divided line, of which the "first [is] knowledge, the second thought, the third trust, and the fourth imagination" (534a). Education would play a major role in deciding who would be in what class. Socrates says that careful crafting of tales is important because they are the most effective method of educating guardians' souls. Lastly in his discussion of educative music, Socrates addresses the appropriate melody of tales with Glaucon. If children only learn about what is good then they will be able to find the divine nature in themselves. Socrates skillfully explains until Glaucon grasps the concept and is able to make an account of it for himself. A summary of Part X (Section5) in Plato's The Republic. Plato's beliefs on education, however, are difficult to discern because of the intricacies of the dialogue. Socrates says. Plato believed that these false tales that talked about the faults of Gods and heroes would mold children. Thus, despite the seeming confusion of the dialogue, it displays in its entirety the divided line, the movement from seeing images to intellecting particulars, and the ideal process of education. He lets them be founders, thereby allowing them a vested interest in the discussion. Before, education consisted of telling false tales to children so that they would absorb the material and have correct opinions. Behind them, puppet-masters carry figurines which cast shadows on the wall in front of the prisoners. Again, Socrates insists that education in philosophy is something to be loved and will result in the satisfaction of eros. The Republic of Plato is a book consisting of dialogues held by Plato. They show unjust men as happy, just men as unhappy, injustice as profitable, and justice as being someone else's good and one's own loss. In this article we discover what Plato has to say about music and its impact on humans. At first, he would be pained and disoriented by the foreign sights. They are chosen from among the ranks of the auxiliaries, and are also known as philosopher-kings. After all, he is trying to sell learning and philosophy as admirable and advantageous practices. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through the pedagogical method he uses with Glaucon and Adeimantus. Therefore, by eating and drinking moderately and undertaking a simple physical exercise plan from youth, the body will be as fit as is needed. Plato view of education is for the good of the individual and for the safety of the state. Through his refutation of the opinions of Glaucon, Adeimantus, Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus, Socrates battles the city's conventions. After gaining an understanding of the two accounts, the paper will analyze them in relation to Socrates' own pedagogical method, and thereby unveil the ideals of Socratic education. Socrates says. The heroes told in stories should be brave, unafraid of death, and are not dependent on others. According to Plato, individual justice can be obtained when each individual develops his or her ability to the fullest. Plato felt that literature is very influential to individuals. If a God were perfect and good then he would not be affected by outside influences and would be able to maintain his perfection. It would be from the elite of the auxiliaries that a philosopher guardian would emerge, as they had worked their way through the education and training. Philosophers cannot stay in the light forever and the cave cannot be eliminated, or else lawlessness would prevail and the city would be destroyed. Interestingly, these bad messages are the same as Glaucon's and Adeimantus' arguments against the usefulness of justice. Recognizing that most men and women wouldn’t be satisfied The most explicit account of education arises after Glaucon questions the moderate and plain lifestyle required in Socrates' just city "of speech" (369a). Radically, Socrates says that anything in youth "assimilates itself to the model whose stamp anyone wishes to give to it" (377b). Socrates' sharing in the educational experience is an effective pedagogical method that benefits both the student and the teacher. The three forms of storytelling are dramatic, tragedy, and comedy. Socrates then spontaneously progresses to the cave analogy in order to explain the process of coming to know the good by means of education. They must be steady, courageous, good looking, noble, tough, and quick learners (355). Socrates, however, still recognizes the danger of the full truth. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Republic and what it means. Instead, his eyes would adjust slowly. He leads them toward the light by means of questions and dialectics until they are able to make an account of their knowledge for themselves (511c-d). The topic I am going to discuss is the topic of Education. This would insure that the Guardians would not become immoral and unjust. The Greek word for number is arithmos, and it’s the root of our word arithmetic. Therefore, the correct style of narrative for both guardians and poets is mostly non-imitative, but allows for some imitation of good men (396d). Tales must be strictly censored because young children are malleable and absorb all to which they are exposed. But despite his adamancy that knowing is superior to opining, Socrates himself claims not to know the good, which allows him to explore it jointly with Glaucon. Plato, however, does not see the bearing of children as a problem in the education of women, nor is it a hindrance to their role as guardian. In fact, in ancient Greece music was part of basic education and even religious or civic gatherings. Next, he teaches about thought through his discussion of the philosopher-kings' education and dialectics. Likening the guardians to philosophical "noble puppies," philosophically educating the guardians by sheltering them, attacking the use of poetry, and telling the guardians that their education and childhood was a dream (414d) are all so implausible that they strike a cord suggesting that the opposite is true. Despite slightly relinquishing control, Socrates still subtly guides Glaucon and Adeimantus toward the truth by making the luxurious city and its guardians' education ludicrous. Socrates makes the discussion of justice interesting by playing "make believe" with Glaucon and Adeimantus. Literature consists of stories being told that are actual events that took place or fictitious ones. I first read this book two years ago. It is the most beautiful educational treatise ever written.”[51] Plato sought in the Republic to encourage an education that orients the human soul towards the good by teaching them about the nature of justice. Rhythm and mode would now have to be censored just as the poem itself had to. If we were too spirited, we would become overly aggressive. Censorship is needed for children as Plato says. and find homework help for other Plato's Republic questions at eNotes Gods must never be shown as unjust for fear that children will think it acceptable and honorable to do injustice. Like the well-educated guardian, a good judge will be "a late learner of what injustice is" (409b). After being compelled to expound on the details of the city (including communism and gender equality), Socrates admits that the city should be ruled by philosopher-kings (503b) and, furthermore, that the previous account of the guardians' education was incomplete (504b). By subtly directing the discussion through questions, Socrates allows the ignorant prisoners to unchain themselves and realize the truth. The modes that express sorrow, drunkenness, effeminacy, and inactivity would have to be discarded. After all, shadows (or noble lies) capture part of the truth, whether it is physical or moral, and can be used to educate people about what lies beyond the cave, either outside the city's laws or in life after death. The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. The children must learn that God cannot take on different shapes or fly around at night to deceive them such as some stories state. Because a solely gymnastic education causes savagery and a purely musical education causes softness, the two must be balanced. Thus, through a rigorous philosophical education, the city unshackles individuals and leads them out of the cave of ignorance and into the light of knowledge so that they are eventually able to go back into the cave and teach others. Interestingly, Plato imitates undesirable individuals as well as good (an imitation that Socrates condemns); however, in keeping with Socratic poetry, the dialogue has an interminably good message and teaches men how to be virtuous philosophers both in life and beyond. When Socrates introduces the cave analogy, one cannot help recognizing the similarities between it and his own actions in the dialogue. One of Socrates’ final commandments regarding the living arrangements of the guardian class is that children, born from the couplings held during the festivals, shall be considered children of the entire community, with no children knowing the identity of their parents, and vice-versa (Plato 92). This is why poets who use this form will not be allowed to tell their tales to the Guardians. As a compromise, Socrates agrees to tell Glaucon of something similar to the good but less complicated (507a). Socrates now acknowledges that the nature necessary in philosopher-kings is rare. The final part of education would be the physical training of the warrior. Glaucon says, "Apollo, what a demonic excess…don't leave even the slightest thing aside" (509c). A progressive education that teaches men to use their existing capacity for knowledge is what Socrates intends for the philosopher-kings. "The same education which makes a man a good guardian will make a woman a good guardian; for their original nature is the same." . Socrates says, "Don't use force in training the children in the studies, but rather play. Simply by aiming for true knowledge, this education is more philosophical and Socratic than the first. The Education of the Guardians [Republic II and IV] Plato BOOK II In Book II of the Republic, Plato has his mouthpiece, Socrates, imagine how it is that a state comes into being. Rather, only music that would inspire the brave and music that would inspire wisdom and peaceful action on the part of the Guardians. Guardians would also be needed to maintain internal order between the citizens. For the Greeks and Plato, excellence is virtue. Of course, this is the way mathematics is studied in most universities today. They need to be gentle when they are dealing with the citizens of the state. Whereas Glaucon was unwilling to give up the "relishes" which he loves (372c), Adeimantus, Socrates' partner for this part of the discussion, willingly gives up his favorite poets and agrees that poets must be less pleasing. Plato, the Greek philosopher, considered music special and devotes broadened attention to the subject in his works Republic and in Laws. The first part of their education would be on literature. Consequently, it was their occupation to enact the decisions made by the ruling class. For the reader, the image of the cave quickly evokes the memory of Socrates' earlier false tales and noble lies, and it is evident that the new education is meant to free the prisoners from their false opinions and convictions, as opposed to chaining them within the cave as did the earlier education. The fourth part of education would be the aim of education. The Guardian - Back to home. Changes sometimes have to be made to literature and music in order to produce a noble warrior. Glaucon reacts as if he has stepped out of the cave for the first time and does not know what to make of his bright surroundings. Yet in Book VII, when Socrates revises the guardian education for the philosopher city, even this purged music is explicitly and emphatically excluded from the formal plan of education as containing no “learning matter” (mathema, 522a8, 537; cf. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to excel. In light of both accounts of education and the dramatic progression of the dialogue, it becomes apparent that the whole Republic is an example of Socratic pedagogy. Using the power of images, Socrates evokes an analogy of the obscure good and the familiar sun. The new importance of truth and what is also contrasts with the first account's use of lies in educating the guardians. Ideal Characteristics of Plato’s Guardians The characterisitics of the ideal guardian is summarized in those words by Socrates in the second book of the Republic : “[H]e who is to be a really good and noble guardian of the State will require to unite in himself philosophy and spirit and swiftness and strength. Instead of giving examples of appropriate tales, Socrates attacks the great poets, Hesiod and Homer, for creating inappropriate tales. We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. Older, educated men, however, "will discuss and consider the truth rather than the one who plays and contradicts for the sake of the game" (539d). Further, Socrates says it is better that the philosopher-kings rule unenthusiastically or else they will become greedy for power which leads to tyranny (520d). 504d1) leading toward being. Socrates says of calculation, "It leads the soul powerfully upward and compels it to discuss numbers themselves" (525d). But unlike the compulsory nature of the earlier education, the philosopher-kings' education must be presented first as voluntary play. Copyright © 2020 Education Essay Writing, Education Research Papers, Term Papers, Dissertation Help. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Melodies imitating the sounds and accents of men courageous in the face of danger and those suitable to peaceful men are allowed, but modes suiting laments or revelries are forbidden (399b). Despite Socrates' use of "reverse psychology" to make Glaucon realize the truth on his own terms, Glaucon does not find the philosopher's life ideal, so Socrates switches tactics. Whereas Glaucon accepted the first account of education because he himself sparked the discussion of the luxurious city, he is now perplexed by the image of the cave. If a God is able to take on another form then it could only be for the worse. By presenting them with numerous different points of view, he teaches them to look beyond convention and their long-held convictions, and be open to new, foreign ideas. If the appetitive component is too strong, we would have an unhealthy soul with too much greed and lust. Knowledge of the good is the ultimate virtue; without it the attainment of other virtues is impossible (505a). Thus, the guardians' education is primarily moral in nature, emphasizing the blind acceptance of beliefs and behaviors rather than the ability to think critically and independently. As the shadows of his convictions fade, Glaucon begins to see the good and understand that philosophy is a profitable, satisfying activity, as well as the way to enlightenment. Proving that he is not against poetry as much as he seemed in the first account of education, Socrates uses the poetic images of the sun, the cave, and Er to educate his pupils. Socrates says that those fit for a guardian's education must by nature be "philosophic, spirited, swift, and strong" (376 c). In Plato’s theory of the guardian class the state may end up serving the guardians and education may become the primary goal, instead of the well being of the population. Education Essay Writing, Education Research Papers, Term Papers, Dissertation Help. Never telling them what to think, Socrates helps them realize their own, natural potential. Furthermore, it is insufficient to merely have opinions about the good. The first account of education, however, is not included in the dialogue without purpose. Unlike the philosopher-kings appearing later in the book, these philosophically natured guardians approve only of that with which they are already familiar and they attack whatever is new. Socrates' ludicrous examples, different images, and persistent questioning are clearly intended to help guide his pupils upward through the levels of reality to the highest, truest knowledge of what is. Plato strongly held that in order to achieve this, then literature must be censored. Latest education news, comment and analysis on schools, colleges, universities, further and higher education and teaching from the Guardian, the world's leading liberal voice Like stories, music according to Plato’s conception of paideia plays a major role in the education of the guardians in virtue; music education must therefore be carefully circumscribed as well so that the words, harmony, and rhythm of a song produce a graceful soul (398c-400e). In the ideal state, matters are overseen by the guardian class – change is to be avoided (perfection having already been obtained), and slaves, and craftsmen and merchants are to know their place. Glaucon wants this illusive, erotic knowledge that Socrates dangles before him, but just as his interest is sparked, Socrates tells him it is too complicated, which arouses Glaucon even more (506e). They presumably assert that they put into the soul knowledge that isn't in it, as through they were putting sight into blind eyes…but the present argument, on the other hand…indicates that this power is in the soul of each and that the instrument with which each learns--just as an eye is not able to turn toward the light from the dark without the whole body--must be turned around from that which is coming into being together with the whole soul until it is able to endure looking at that which is and the brightest part of that which is (518c). The importance of knowing what is stands out in sharp contrast to the earlier unfounded opinions of the guardians. But similar to the escaped prisoner's increasing ability to see what is, as Socrates introduces his sequence of images Glaucon begins to understand what the good is, how it is to be found, and that it is the most desirable virtue. The study of complex, elusive concepts pushes one to study what is permanent and perfect. Socrates says, "Imitations, if they are practiced continually from youth onwards, become established as habits and nature, in body and sounds and in thought" (395d). (40) In Plato's ideal society, mothers are to be between 20 and 40, fathers between 25 and 55. Hades should be praised so that the warriors will not fear death; children should grow up fearing slavery more than death (386c). What is this subject? This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c). The primary object of education, Plato says, is to turn the eye, which the soul already possesses, to the light. According to Socrates, virtue is knowledge. He acknowledges that his proposed regime and its philosopher-kings are implausible and, instead, the real goal is to establish an ordered, just regime within oneself (592). Stories of heroes that are loathsome, misleading, and lack self-control must be discarded. Physical training is an important aspect because an educated Guardian would be of no use if he were unable to protect and serve. After convincing Glaucon that escaping the cave and becoming a philosopher is advantageous, Socrates returns to more practical political matters. Ideal Characteristics of Plato’s Guardians The characterisitics of the ideal guardian is summarized in those words by Socrates in the second book of the Republic : “[H]e who is to be a really good and noble guardian of the State will require to unite in himself philosophy and spirit and swiftness and strength. The content of tales is meant to instill virtue and a certain theology in the hearers. Plato considered bravery to be one of the most important attributes a guardian should possess. Every component of speech must follow the disposition of a good soul; "Good speech, good harmony, good grace, and good rhythm accompany good disposition" (400e). They must be fierce in order to go to war or ward off invasion. Literature with topics such as Gods against Gods and misdeeds were untruthful. This may not be good for the Guardians because they may take on some negative characteristics. From what Socrates says here, it seems as if the natures with which children are born matter less than their education; anyone can be a philosopher with the right training.1 Also, unlike the first education, the purpose of the philosopher-kings' education is to eventually teach children how to distinguish right from wrong by showing them the whole truth. Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. This will insure that theGuardians will be brave. Finally, at the age of fifty, those who have excelled in everything will perceive the good and will alternate philosophizing and ruling the city. Instead, recipients of a philosophical education are indebted to the city and must use their knowledge to make the cave/city as enlightened as possible without destroying it. Education in music and gymnastics will be compulsory for youths, and their progress and adaptability will be watched and tested throughout their development. Socrates claims, "A young thing can't judge what is hidden sense and what is not; but what he takes into his opinions at that age has a tendency to become hard to eradicate and unchangeable" (378d). The topic of education first arises in the book when Glaucon opposes the plain lifestyle required in Socrates' city. He says that these poets' tales include bad lies, which further unrealistic images of the gods and heroes (377e). The tales deemed unfit for a child to hear would be discarded. Thus, potential philosopher-kings must receive a new form of education that will identify, test, and refine their philosophical natures.
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